The City of Jinan
China's shandong jinan city, is the nickname, jinan are spring scenery, many famous
world, according to statistics, there are four spring, a natural QuanQun ten, 73.3
springs, both at home and abroad, is rare in the city of natural karst water museum,
except "quancheng" the jinan were often called the "spring".
Jinan spring number and difform, brilliant, spewing shape, waterfalls, some are
bay, many of the spring, luscious clear out from underground, for rivers and lakes.
Water, streams, concentration in the spring, the willows "and" spring stone upper
"enchanting scenery. As early as the song dynasty, astronomers Zenggong assessment:
"qi is sweet in the league, more," in qin dynasty geographers also praised said:
"in jinan, springs scenic landscapes of qilu armor." Cool refreshing water is endowed
the blood, jinan city delicately temperament and exuberant vitality. At the same
time, jinan city development, historical evolution, folk custom also closely related
with water and formed his unique spring culture.
Taishan Mountain in Shandong was included as "World Cultural and Natural Heritage"
by UNESCO in Dec 1987.
Taishan Mountain, a typical representative of the Chinese famous traditional mountains,
is a mountain with a long history and a special historic status. In 1982, Taishan
Mountain was up into the list of State key scenic spots and was formally listed
in the directory of World Natural and Cultural Heritage in 1987. It becomes a precious
heritage of human being.
Taishan Mountain locates in the east of North China Plain and the middle of Shandong
province erecting from the Shandong hills. It is prominent around other hills. The
prominent peak, Yuhuang peak, is 1545 meters high and locates in east 117.6 degree,
north 36.16 degree. The south of Taishan Mountain is higher than the north. Its
south foot of mountain begins from Tai'an city and its north foot of mountain stops
in Jinan City, the distance between which is 60kms. In Taishan Mountain, the transportation
is convenient with the Jinghu railway passing by in the west. In its north is Jinan
city, which has another name of "spring city". The distance between Taishan Mountain
and Qubu is 70kms. Many roads and railways such as Taifei, Taixin, Taining, and
Taiji meet in Tai'an city, which just locates in the south of Taishan Mountain.
Taishan Mountain is in a superior geographic location with abundant water and thermal
resources, and its climate belongs to the warm temperate zone half wetness monsoon
climate. As regard to its historic position, in the ancient times, Taishan Mountain
is a developed region—— in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. As regard to its
cultural position, it is the center of Dongyi culture. In the south foot of Taishan
Mountain, there is Da Fenkou culture, and there is Longshan Culture in its north
foot, it is the center of Qi and Lu. And its transportation is more superior. Taishan
Mountain is in a key position where the railway from central plains to Shandong
peninsula meets the railway connecting the south and north of the east coast. There
are no hills between Taishan Mountain and the capitals in the ancient times as well
as the developed regions. This superior condition helps Taishan Mountain gain the
first position among the Five Famous Mountains in China.
As a mountainous scenic spot, Taishan Mountain has high values in term of aesthetics
and science, especially the aesthetic value, which is the foundation for Taishan
Mountain becoming a famous mountain in the history and the world natural and cultural
heritage today. For thousands of years, during the process of studying on Taishan
Mountain in terms of adoration, taste, religion and science, the people has created
extremely abundant and valued Taishan scenic culture. Moreover, in the Taishan scenic
culture, the natural scene plays the key role with the literacy scene assisting.
The nature and culture penetrate into each other. Here we can see the philosophy,
aesthetics and science idea about the harmonious development of Sky, Ground and
Human beings. Thereby, either from the point of time or space, Taishan Mountain
contains extremely abundant contents with high aesthetic, science and historic value.
We can say that Taishan Mountain is the symbol of spiritual culture of China and
the unique heritage of the world.
Located in Qufu, Shandong Province, the tourist area, which includes the Mansion,
Temple and Cemetery of Confucius(1), enjoys a worldwide fame as a traditional Chinese
cultural site. They attract numerous tourists from both home and abroad annually.
In 1994, they were listed as world cultural heritage sites.
The Mansion of Confucius is the living quarters of the first grandson of Confucius,
a great philosopher, educator and a founder of Confucianism. It is also known as
Master Yansheng's Mansion because in 1055, or the second year of the reign of Song
Emperor Zhaozhen, Kong Zongyuan, the 46th generation male descendant of Confucius
was given the title "Master Yansheng". The title was passed down to Kong Decheng,
the 77th generation male descendant of Confucius.
With an area of 160,000 square meters, the mansion has nine courtyards with 463
rooms along the east, west and middle routes. The main part of the mansion centers
the houses along the middle route . The first four yards contain offices and the
other five serve as residences. At the rear it is a garden. The mansion stores more
than 9,000 volumes of files from 1534 (the 13th year of the reign of Ming Emperor
Jiaqing) to 1948 and great quantities of rare and precious cultural and historical
The Temple of Confucius served as a place for worshipping Confucius in various dynasties.
In 478 B.C., the second year after Confucius' death, the ruler of the State of Lu
converted Confucius' former residence, the three-room mansion, into a temple and
made it a place for worshipping Confucius. The temple was constantly renovated and
expanded to its present size by emperors of the Western Han Dynasty and the following
historical periods. It covers an area of 218,000 square meters and is 1,120 meters
in length from south to north. There are nine courtyards and 466 rooms along three
routes in the left, right and middle. The temple has an outer wall, with four corner
towers, which shelters ancient pines. The main buildings along the middle route
are Kuiwen Pavilion, Thirteen Stele Pavilion, Xingtan Pavilion, Dacheng Hall, Hall
of Confucius' Wife and Shengji Hall. Dacheng Hall stands out and is the main hall
where Confucius was worshipped.
There are now three exhibition halls displaying tablets from the Han dynasty and
Six Kingdoms of Wei, stone statues from the Han Dynasty and calligraphic carvings
on Yuhonglou tablets. The 17 tablets of Han Dynasty are the largest collection in
the country in term of quantityThe temple houses some 2,000 tablets dating from
the Western Han Dynasty right up to the founding of New China. They are one of the
largest collections of tablets in the country. Ther reserved in one place.
The Cemetery of Confucius is about 1.5 kilometers north of Qufu and is the Confucius
family cemetery. It takes up 1.998 million square meters and around it there is
a seven-kilometer-long hedge. The pavilions, towers, halls and archways built in
various historical periods are set in a forest. Behind the Zhushui Bridge is the
graveyard, dating from the Eastern Zhou, which houses the tomb of Confucius, the
tombs of his son Kong Li and grandson Kong Ji. The tomb of Confucius is 6.2 meters
high and has a circumference of 88 meters.
Shandong Normal University Main Campus in Jinan Downtown
Shandong Normal University Changqing Campus